Common Name: Peanut, goober
Botanical Name: Arachis hypogae
Type and Use: Annual legume with edible peas that develop underground. Yes, they are peas, not nuts
Location: Full sun
Planting Dates: Spring after all danger of frost is passed.
Planting Method: Seed removed from the pods and planted in warm soil, well after the last freeze. Soil temperature should be at least 65° at 3-4 inches for 5 consecutive days. Seed should be planted 2-½ inches deep, 4 inches apart.
Seed Emergence: 9-50 days depending on the variety.
Harvest Time: Fall
Height: 15-20 inches
Final Spread: 15-20 inches
Final Spacing: 10-15 inches
Growth Habits: Low-growing annual legume with a central upright stem. Peanuts have yellow or white flowers .
and underground pods that form on the roots. The pods contain the edible peanut.
Culture: Peanuts need sandy soil and moderate moisture and a long growing season. The sandy soil is more important for ease of harvest than for growth. They are very tender to frost. Drainage is also critical. Bacteria inoculum is available specially for peanuts. Peanuts are heavy feeders and need lots of calcium, phosphorous and potassium.
Troubles and Solutions: Insects are generally not too much of a problem. Try to keep night lights away from peanut plantings. Leaf eating insects can be controlled with any citrus-based sprays. Soil-borne diseases are controlled with cornmeal at 20 pounds per 1,000 square feet. Sulfur spray every 5 days will also help control fungal diseases.
Harvest and Storage: Dig peanuts in late summer and let air-dry before storing in a cool, dry place.
Notes: Peanut vines should be left to increase the nitrogen and carbon of the soil. A good place to learn more about peanuts in Texas is the Texas A&M research station in Stephenville.
Varieties: There are from basic choices: Spanish, Valencia, Runner, and Virginia