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:  Euonymus europaeus. Synonym - Euonymus bulgaricus

FAMILY:  Celastraceae

OTHER COMMON  NAMES:  Spindle, spindle tree

HABIT:  A large shrub or small tree that reaches 30 feet in height. Leaves are opposite, simple, elliptical, 2 1/2 to 4 inches long, finely serrated, long pointed, green above, paler and may be pubescent below. Spring flowers are perfect, inconspicuous (1/3 inch across), 4 greenish-white petals with purple anthers, appearing in late spring in multiple branched clusters. Fruit are 4-lobed capsules, 1/2 inch across, pink to purple in color. They split open to reveal dark red seeds that ripen in the fall. Twigs are slender, green turning brown with age, maybe 4-sided, leaf scars are light brown (nearly white) and obvious against green twig; buds are green and sharp pointed. Bark is thin, greenish-brown to reddish brown, shallow longitudinal splits. It becomes irregularly shreddy-ridged with age.

CULTURE:  Hardy in zone 3 -7. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

NOTES: Native from Europe to W Asia.

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